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Recreating SuperTokens Middleware by Hand
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/06/2022, 6:06 PM
Mkay. This kinda relates to the
Issue
I threw up on GitHub in
supertokens-node
. But this question is more specific. Is there an existing way to replicate the
/signin
,
/signup
,
/session/refresh
route middleware by hand? (And are those the only middlewares created from
app.use(middlewares())
?)
(Background in Thread)
Now that I'm done testing and am trying to build out and deploy a physical app, I'm running into some unexpected troubles. The
remix-supertokens
example that I created works just fine. However, there are limitations: The current implementation relies on calling `http://localhost`/`https://localhost`. If, for some reason, the web server decides to force
https
only, then when the Remix server calls itself, it must also use
https
. My application is constrained in this way: 1) I can't make requests to
https://localhost
from my own server. 2) I can make requests to
https://MY_DOMAIN.com
from my own server. 3) I don't want to make requests to
https://MY_DOMAIN.com
from my server because it creates unnecessary round trips and will cost me more money. (I could go into the details of why I'm in that situation, but I figured that listing out the constraints was simplest.) Being in this conundrum, I'm now trying to see if there's a way to replicate the SuperTokens functionality on the server directly in my Remix Actions (i.e., "route handlers").
--- Still keeping the details minimal. But I'm only running into this issue because I'm using Cloudflare as a reverse proxy for the app and have some strict settings. Calling my own server locally conflicts with my strict setup.
r

rp

12/08/2022, 5:51 AM
hey @ITEnthusiasm
> Is there an existing way to replicate the /signin, /signup, /session/refresh route middleware by hand? (And are those the only middlewares created from app.use(middlewares())?) Yea. The backend SDK has functions that are called in all these APIs that are exposed to you - excepting for session refreshing I think.
> the web server decides to force https only, You mean the cookies have the secure setting which makes it send only if using https? If this is the case, I think this applies only to browsers sending the cookies and calling your own API on the backend should still work? If not, then you could extract the cookies from the request made by the browser and then resend them in your request that uses http? Im not sure i completely understand the situation.
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/08/2022, 1:42 PM
Ah, alas. If there's no way to reproduce session refreshing then I might have to rethink some things. πŸ€”
r

rp

12/08/2022, 1:43 PM
actually sorry
there is refreshSession function also that is exposed
so yea..
you can call all the functions in your APIs
For example, you can make your own refresh API and call this function in it: https://github.com/supertokens/supertokens-node/blob/master/lib/ts/recipe/session/index.ts#L214
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/08/2022, 1:47 PM
Yeah sorry for the confusion. With Cloudflare, I have their Strict Full TLS mode. In this mode, all communication is over TLS: from the browser, to Cloudflare, to the origin server, and all the way back. Cloudflare allows you to install certificates that they trust on the origin server. However, they're signed by Cloudflare rather than by some other trusted CA. So Node.js doesn't know anything about them. My current SuperTokens implementations in Remix involves Node.js calling the SuperTokens endpoints on its own server. But when it sees that Cloudflare-signed certificates, it doesn't trust them. So the request fails. (This is why HTTP works but not HTTPS.) But this problem wouldn't exist if I changed to an implementation that didn't involve calling the SuperTokens endpoints from the server. I'm sure there are some ways to get Node to trust the Cloudflare certificates, but I don't want the implementation for HTTPS to get too complicated when it comes to the security side. A lot of potential places for people to get tripped up.
r

rp

12/08/2022, 1:48 PM
right i see. Why not just make the node server call itself using localhost?
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/08/2022, 1:51 PM
I am. That's the problem. πŸ˜… Maybe other servers act different? But with Node.js I have this issue. If I used the domain instead (
https://mydomain.com
), then the request would go to Cloudflare (not my origin server), which has valid certificates. But that's an unnecessary round trip that I don't want to take. For clarity: - Cloudflare has valid CA certificates. (Node.js trusts these.) - Origin Server has Cloudflare-signed certificates that Cloudflare trusts, but that Node.js does not. This is typically fine, except for cases where the Node.js server tries to call itself directly through
localhost
. (Ironically.)
r

rp

12/08/2022, 1:52 PM
oh no. I mean, since the server is calling itself, it can just use localhost to call itself - so cloudflare isn't even involved in this. Am i missing something?
you set / read cookies manually from the request / response when calling localhost
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/08/2022, 1:54 PM
It is already using localhost. Hmmm. Maybe I can try to explain things differently. So imagine we're in a different scenario without Cloudflare.
Imagine I setup a Node.js Express server. It uses HSTS and forces all requests to be HTTPS. All requests must be HTTPS, and only port
443
is exposed by the server. Because of this, I cannot call
http://localhost
. That would be an HTTP request, which the server rejects. Now imagine that on the server, I'm using a self-signed certificate in the configuration. Browsers do not trust this certificate. Similarly, no Node.js application will trust this certificate. If someone else tries to call my server using HTTPS (e.g.,
https://mydomain.com
), Node.js will fail the request because the certificate is not verifiable. In the same way, if I call
https://localhost
, Node.js is still unable to verify the self-signed certificate. So even though the server is calling itself, it will fail.
--- If we translate that scenario over to the current one, it's exactly the same. But instead of using a self-signed certificate, I'm using a Cloudflare-signed certificate. By default, Node.js trusts neither of these.
r

rp

12/08/2022, 1:59 PM
hmmm. You could introduce nginx in front of node js that will make the https request to a http request and send it to node which is listening on http
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/08/2022, 2:03 PM
I could! But again that would raise complexity. πŸ˜… I'd rather: A) Find a way to get Node.js to trust Cloudflare certificates. (Not sure about how to go about that yet.) or B) Implement the 3 SuperTokens API routes locally. My only concern there is how simple it would be. πŸ˜… But the bright side is that the complexity is restricted to the
server.js
file in that case. It doesn't bleed into things like certificate authorities and such. And it doesn't require something else like Nginx. (Unrelated: This would also give me a hint to translate all my Remix-SuperTokens code to a new Solid-Start example, I think.)
r

rp

12/08/2022, 2:04 PM
right. Fair enough. Option (b) seems good
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/08/2022, 2:05 PM
Cool. I'll try to examine the docs and the SDK reference closely. But I may reach out for help/clarity from time to time if that's okay. πŸ˜… If I can get something working with B my hope is that it would pave the way for the other things like Svelte Kit too. But I'm not certain about that yet because obviously I haven't tried it all out yet.
r

rp

12/08/2022, 2:05 PM
sounds good - yea, feel free to ask πŸ™‚
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/16/2022, 4:24 PM
Mkay. Either today or next Friday I'm going to try to start looking into this on Fridays. Need to clean up the codebase a little bit first.
r

rp

12/16/2022, 4:28 PM
alright!!
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/16/2022, 6:03 PM
I'm having trouble finding out where
supertokens.middleware
points. https://github.com/supertokens/supertokens-node/blob/master/lib/ts/framework/express/framework.ts#L159 πŸ€”
Obviously it can't be that local function
Okay. It's
supertokens.middleware
>
recipe.handleAPIRequest
, it seems
New Question: Do you know if the Node.js Server Frameworks that you support (e.g., Express, Koa, etc.) extend the existing Node.js interfaces for request objects? For instance, these frameworks would not delete/overrride
IncomingMessage.headers
, right?
The typing of
any
in many places admittedly makes some aspects of looking around the code and contributing a little difficult. πŸ˜…
After the first couple of questions get responded to, I'm probably going to refer to this thread in #757927552999227393 and then continue it there since I assume that's where this stuff really belongs.
Okay. Some more questions: SuperTokens clearly creates cookies to handle authentication. I only seem to see 2 cookies: 1) Access Token and 2) Refresh Token. Question 1: Are these the only 2 tokens that SuperTokens ever sets for its API routes? Question 2: Here: https://github.com/supertokens/supertokens-node/blob/a8760b966dd1239f0e7b782b72bbfba830fcd859/lib/ts/recipe/session/recipeImplementation.ts#L112. On line 125, I see a function called
attachCreateOrRefreshSessionResponseToExpressRes
. Is this the only function used to create the Access+Refresh tokens?
If the answer to
Question 2
is yes (I hope it is 😬), is there a way that we can update this (and the related functions) to avoid manipulating the original
Response
object and to return the
ResponseHeaders
necessary for SuperTokens to properly do its auth stuff only?
--- Such a solution would be framework agnostic. In terms of rewriting the SuperTokens routes on my own (instead of using
app.use(middleware())
, I'm finding that it would actually be a lot better if I could use a framework-agnostic solution... A framework-agnostic solution is the only way to support the neat frameworks like SvelteKit and Solid Start right now. And it will guarantee that all new hot SSR frameworks that appear in the future will immediately be supported. Being able to support
next@13
when the
app
directory is out of beta would also be a big deal. Of course, the code would also need to be updated to accept Request information instead of the entire request object. Where needed, SuperTokens could probably accept a `RequestContext`/`RequestData`/etc. object that has any needed information
path
,
body
, etc. (I'm hoping that SuperTokens doesn't need that much request information -- to keep life simple.)
--- If we can get all of that going, I personally feel like it would be pretty game changing. It would also open the possibility of deleting
BaseRequest
,
BaseResponse
, and all of their child classes. I know this isn't necessary and would be a breaking change, but I think it would thoroughly benefit the SuperTokens team and all contributors. The team wouldn't need to maintain several
abstract
classes and sub classes anymore because end-users would simply interact with the
Recipe.*
and
Session.*
methods directly. And contributors would be able to make contributions more easily. (I personally felt like I was hopping back and forth a lot around the codebase to get only a super basic idea of what the
signup
route does just for Express. And not all types were defined. That will probably be a barrier to some people who would otherwise contribute. It was a barrier to me until I found out I really need this feature and SuperTokens can get a 1-Up on Auth0 with this. πŸ˜…) It's a short term bother with huge long term benefits. And the docs could just be updated to show how to implement the API routes in each framework. I imagine it wouldn't be that hard. Just spitballing more thoughts. I can add this to the original issue I opened too if that would be more helpful. But I think the next step would really be to add a feature for framework-agnostic solutions by refactoring those underlying classes I mentioned. Lmk your thoughts. Sorry I know I typed a lot.
r

rp

12/17/2022, 1:35 PM
> Do you know if the Node.js Server Frameworks that you support (e.g., Express, Koa, etc.) extend the existing Node.js interfaces for request objects? Im not sure about this. > Are these the only 2 tokens that SuperTokens ever sets for its API routes? We also set sIdRefreshToken cookie + add front-token header in the response. > Is this the only function used to create the Access+Refresh tokens? It doesn't create the tokens, but it adds the access, refresh, sIdRefresh cookies and front-token header to the response. The name of the function is a bit misleading cause it ends with "expressRes", but it's also used for non express frameworks. > If the answer to Question 2 is yes (I hope it is 😬), is there a way that we can update this (and the related functions) to avoid manipulating the original Response object and to return the ResponseHeaders necessary for SuperTokens to properly do its auth stuff only? Yes you can. For example, the createNewSession function takes in a
res
object, and the
middleware
also takes in a
req
and
res
object (like
middleware()(req, res, next)
. Instead of giving it the actual
req
,
res
objects, you can instead make your own "fake" req, res objects and pass those in. Then later on, you can read from the fake res object the headers / cookies that were set and do whatever you like. The fake
req
,
res
objects would have to conform to the BaseRequest and BaseResponse shape and would need to have the boolean of
wrapperUsed
as true. -------------------- So even now, it's technically possible to use SuperTokens with any framework via the above method. You could even use this trick to convert a form post request from the frontend to a JSON request that's understandable by the supertokens API and this would make is so that in the remix backend, you don't have to send a request to the backend itself (which i believe you are doing now). We will make this more easy / document this in the future.
@ITEnthusiasm
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/19/2022, 2:38 PM
(First, thanks for reading all of that and responding.) Okay. So 4 tokens in the header response.
createNewSession
will allow me to read those tokens and add them to my own separate response object. I can send my own [req] object in as long as it has the data needed. Sound correct? Is `ExpressRequest`/`ExpressResponse` internal or is it exposed by the npm package? I'm assuming that reusing those classes would make it easier to do this. If so, maybe I can trying seeing if I can bring that logic to
remix-supertokens
-- depending on how it would impact code readers. I'd have to see what the physical code turns out to look like first. --- Long term though, any thoughts on refactoring some of those internal functions to simply receive data and return a response headers object or something? The workaround you described sounds like it should work. But it will leave the SuperTokens team with maintaining some logic that's more complex; and it will require end users in situations like mine to jump through more hoops. It's more effort for everyone to wrap their brains around things.
@rp Pinging just in case the message gets missed. πŸ˜… I don't know if you have notifications turned on for this thread. (I think I do.) I'd also be happy to try (try πŸ˜‚) to look into how much effort it would take to handle such a refactor. I'm less familiar with the codebase though so it would take me more time. Sounds like fun though.
r

rp

12/23/2022, 2:26 PM
hey @ITEnthusiasm
> So 4 tokens in the header response. createNewSession will allow me to read those tokens and add them to my own separate response object. I can send my own [req] object in as long as it has the data needed. Sound correct? createNewSession adds theses tokens to the
res
object that you give it. So you can provide a custom res object that conforms to the BaseResponse structure, and then can read the tokens from that to set however you like. > Is ExpressRequest/ExpressResponse internal or is it exposed by the npm package? It's internal. > Long term though, any thoughts on refactoring some of those internal functions to simply receive data and return a response headers object or something? Yes. > But it will leave the SuperTokens team with maintaining some logic that's more complex; It won't affect us in terms of additional code maintenance, since you are creating your own res / req object anyway.
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/23/2022, 2:33 PM
> It won't affect us in terms of additional code maintenance, since you are creating your own res / req object anyway. Sorry for the confusion! I was referring to maintaining a codebase that accepts data and returns headers (simpler maintenance) vs. a codebase that involves various subclasses of different kinds of framework Requests/Responses (harder maintenance). --- I think this gives me what I need for now. I'll wrap back in again if something else pops up. πŸ˜… Thanks again, as always!
r

rp

12/23/2022, 2:34 PM
Sounds good! Thanks
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/29/2022, 6:34 PM
> createNewSession adds theses tokens to the res object that you give it. Is there a single function that creates these tokens from the incoming request data? I was hoping to rely on that. But I can stop at
createNewSession
if not.
Nevermind. Not necessary. As I'm working through this, I'm trying to see if I can identify places where refactors would be simple to do (in case I could actually contribute anything meaningful to the supertokens codebase myself). And, of course, as I'm thinking through these refactors, I'm trying to think of places/ways to replace
request
inputs with simple request data inputs and replace
response
inputs with an output of response
Headers
. But it seems like
createNewSession
or
attachCreateOrRefreshSessionResponseToExpressRes
would be sufficient candidates since that's where the interaction with the response is going on.
Maybe I can wrap these guys in a function with the solution I'm trying to work out in the meantime
@rp ~~Question 1: I'm having a bit of a hard time understanding the logic in
getCookieValueToSetInHeader
(https://github.com/supertokens/supertokens-node/blob/a8760b966dd1239f0e7b782b72bbfba830fcd859/lib/ts/framework/utils.ts#L300). All of the
let
fun is making it hard to follow the logic. πŸ˜… Does this function basically set a new value for a cookie if it doesn't exist yet and replace the value for a cookie if it already exists?~~ **Edit**: You can ignore this. I'm pretty sure the answer to my question is yes.
@rp Question 2: Does SuperTokens ever try to duplicate the cookies that it sets? I'm actually curious to know why SuperTokens needs to filter out duplicate cookies if it's in control of when the various cookies get set already. Irrelevant. I'm just going to include the logic to replace tokens if necessary. It seems there still needs to be some standardization around this (https://github.com/whatwg/fetch/issues/973); but for now I have a workaround to handle this use case of replacing a key-value pair for
Set-Cookie
, I believe.
(If you don't want me to ping you when I ask these questions, lmk.)
> We also set sIdRefreshToken cookie + add front-token header in the response. Question 3: What does
front-token
represent? I've never seen it set in my apps. Is it only set when the frontend needs JavaScript?
I'm asking because I think I have
login
working now. If this is good to go, I think I'm gonna start targetting
signup
and
refresh
.
Mkay. Sign in, Create Password Reset Token, and Reset Password are working now.
Need to figure out Sign Up, Session Refresh, and Logout now.
Remix code actually seems smaller with this approach. At least, it's hopefully more readable. πŸ€”
r

rp

12/30/2022, 5:37 AM
> What does front-token represent? I've never seen it set in my apps. Is it only set when the frontend needs JavaScript? It;s for the frontend to be able to read the access token's payload without having access to the actual access token.
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/30/2022, 2:21 PM
Ah, okay. So it does sound like it's only needed for frontend JS then. Thanks! πŸ‘πŸΏ
r

rp

12/30/2022, 2:22 PM
Yup
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/30/2022, 2:51 PM
I'm seeing
sigin
,
signup
,
createToken
, and
resetPassword
all inside
handleRequest
. But I don't see anything for
logout
or
refreshToken
. Do you know where this logic is defined within
supertokens-node
?
r

rp

12/30/2022, 2:51 PM
in the session recipe
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/30/2022, 5:07 PM
**Question 1**: What’s the significance of
revokeSession
returning
true
vs
false
?
**Edit**: This (and 4 other messages) were deleted to remove clutter after I figured some things out.
Ugh. After many headaches, I found out that I was unable to
logout
because the incoming
sAccessToken
that's needed for the initial
Session.getSession
call appears to be URI encoded.
**Question 2**: Does the
SuperTokens
/signout
route automatically run
decodeURIComponent
on the
sAccessToken
? (I didn't see any logic doing this on the
supertokens-node
repo ... but decoding the token seems to be required for the code to work.)
And I get this when trying to refresh sessions: > SuperTokens core threw an error for a POST request to path: '/recipe/session/refresh' with status code: 400 and message: Field name 'antiCsrfToken' is invalid in JSON input
Ughhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh. This refresh session was failing because
headers.get("anti-csrf")
was returning
null
instead of
undefined
. Changing to
headers.get("anti-csrf") ?? undefined
makes the code work. **Question 3**: What's causing that to break? Can SuperTokens not work with both
undefined
and
null
here?
--- I'm almost done. I think I'll try to implement
signUp
tomorrow. But after that, I'd appreciate some review to make sure the things that I've written actually work as expected (if that wouldn't be a bother) -- similar to what we did the first time I created
remix-supertokens
. πŸ˜… Assuming I can get
signUp
working, I still don't know if I'd say SuperTokens "supports" things like SolidStart and SvelteKit. πŸ˜… Once the developer needs knowledge of internals to get things working, it's no longer "supported". But I'm at least glad there's an option to cleverly interact with the internals.
**Question 4**: If I want to do email verification, is that logic that I'd have to put inside my
signUp
function as well (when I create it)? Or does
EmailPassword.signUp
automatically take care of that for me?
r

rp

12/31/2022, 5:24 AM
> Question 1: What’s the significance of revokeSession returning true vs false? It returns true if the session existed and was revoked. If the session did not exist in the first place, it returns false. > Question 2: Does the SuperTokens /signout route automatically run decodeURIComponent on the sAccessToken? (I didn't see any logic doing this on the supertokens-node repo ... but decoding the token seems to be required for the code to work.) Not really. The token shouldn't be encoded at all.. just directly pass to getSession > What's causing that to break? Can SuperTokens not work with both undefined and null here? It can.. but we didn't need it. > Question 4: If I want to do email verification, is that logic that I'd have to put inside my signUp function as well (when I create it)? Or does EmailPassword.signUp automatically take care of that for me? Email verification is a different recipe and independent to emailpassword recipe. Check that out.
i

ITEnthusiasm

12/31/2022, 2:46 PM
> Not really. The token shouldn't be encoded at all.. just directly pass to getSession Interesting. The encoding might be happening somewhere in Express or Remix then. In any case, I can decode the value to make things work properly. I'll have to take note of this for the future. πŸ€”
Sorry. I thought I would get the example out today but I didn't. πŸ˜… I'll let you know when I actually have it out there. I have the rough draft finished on my local now, I think. I'm going to give it some review either tomorrow or the day after. Then I'll ping you
r

rp

01/01/2023, 6:06 AM
Sounds good!
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/01/2023, 12:52 PM
sigh okay
@rp You can look at the
experiment/custom-supertokens
branch of the
remix-supertokens
repo to see the latest code: https://github.com/ITenthusiasm/remix-supertokens/tree/experiment/custom-supertokens. The most important changes (at least right now) are in this last commit (if you want to look at diffs): https://github.com/ITenthusiasm/remix-supertokens/commit/f50eabc105885ddd024730f1f1652fa741204e23. If you (and/or any other members) could review the code and test out the app to make sure everything is working correctly, that would be appreciated. Then, if you guys think it's a good idea, I can merge this into
main
on the
remix-supertokens
repo. (My hesitation is that there's a little more code that devs have to write to get their
Remix
apps running. But people using
Remix
in certain ways will end up forced to use this approach anyway.) I'd especially appreciate it if you could let me know if there are any error cases that I'm failing to handle properly -- especially around the
/logout
and
/auth/session/refresh
routes. πŸ˜… Thanks again for all your help in this. This thread is several comments long. πŸ˜‚ If this works out, I'm probably going to do some minor cleanup here or there... Then after I take a break, I'll probably see if I can tackle
SvelteKit
with this approach... maybe. πŸ˜… But I'm only intending for these to be temporary workarounds since these solutions make assumptions about internal logic within
supertokens-node
. It's a little dangerous. In terms of the
supertokens-node
refactors that could be done, maybe this code could give ideas about the potential inputs/outputs to require? idk. πŸ€·πŸΏβ€β™‚οΈ But from this experiment, it seems like the
supertokens-node
functions/methods really only need request
Headers
as inputs (instead of the whole request object); and it seems like
supertokens-node
can return response
Headers
instead of accepting and mutating a response object.
--- Kinda funny. Because I needed SuperTokens, I left SvelteKit for Remix. Fast-forward a couple months and now maybe this will provide a way to get SvelteKit up and running. Even so, I'm probably going to stick to Remix. πŸ˜…
--- I'm not sure if the findings here influence this conversation at all: https://discord.com/channels/603466164219281420/757927552999227393/1001934155199815730. Maybe they don't? πŸ€·πŸΏβ€β™‚οΈ I'm running with
Remix + Express
so I'm not sure what the Cloudflare limitations would be.
--- **Question**: What does
getAllCORSHeaders
return? Is there a place where we can see the derivation logic? All the static methods I see on the repo just return empty arrays. πŸ€”
--- Just as a heads up on that timeline of cleanup, update, merge branches, SvelteKit, etc., that probably won’t start until the Friday after this coming Friday. πŸ˜… I originally intended to only work on this on Fridays, but obviously a bit of speedrunning happened this week. I’m gonna take a tiny break and then hop back into β€œEach Friday” afterwards.
r

rp

01/02/2023, 4:35 AM
> What does getAllCORSHeaders return? See the session recipe.
hey @ITEnthusiasm thanks a lot for all the work so far. I'll checkout the repo sometime this week πŸ™‚
Sorry, sometime next week*
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/02/2023, 5:46 PM
Sounds good! Thanks! πŸ˜„
r

rp

01/02/2023, 5:46 PM
Thank you sir! πŸ™‚
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/05/2023, 2:09 PM
Looks like
next@13
is also gradually adopting support for web-standard `Request`/`Response`. If they do this all the way, this approach will also work in Next.js without any additional refactoring. (Refactoring the approach to work with Next.js would be rather easy to do anyway though.) Really glad Remix came along. It definitely pushed Next.js to make some better changes. πŸ˜…
r

rp

01/06/2023, 4:20 AM
Yea! This does seem to be getting more popular indeed!
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/10/2023, 2:12 PM
> Not really. The token shouldn't be encoded at all.. just directly pass to getSession Something I just discovered that's probably worth noting from the
cookie
package docs (https://github.com/jshttp/cookie#cookieserializename-value-options): For the
encode
option passed to `cookie.serialize`: > Specifies a function that will be used to encode a cookie's value. Since value of a cookie has a limited character set (and must be a simple string), this function can be used to encode a value into a string suited for a cookie's value. > > The default function is the global
encodeURIComponent
, which will encode a JavaScript string into UTF-8 byte sequences and then URL-encode any that fall outside of the cookie range. Similarly, for the
decode
option passed to `cookie.parse`: > Specifies a function that will be used to decode a cookie's value. Since the value of a cookie has a limited character set (and must be a simple string), this function can be used to decode a previously-encoded cookie value into a JavaScript string or other object. > > The default function is the global
decodeURIComponent
, which will decode any URL-encoded sequences into their byte representations. > > note if an error is thrown from this function, the original, non-decoded cookie value will be returned as the cookie's value. So it seems the
cookie
package that
supertokens-node
uses automatically encodes and decodes. That's why I ran into that hiccup earlier.
r

rp

01/10/2023, 2:15 PM
Hmmm. Thats interesting. Cause if we take the cookie value from the browser (copy from network tab), the value is not encoded in any way
but i guess the browser must be decoding it before showing it
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/10/2023, 2:16 PM
Yeah I think so. When I get the cookie back from the browser on the server side, it appears encoded. But that would be consistent with what the package says.
I guess it makes sense for the network tab to decode for readers
r

rp

01/10/2023, 2:18 PM
Sounds about right πŸ™‚ Thanks
I have planned sometime this week to checkout the remix app btw
will get back
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/10/2023, 2:31 PM
Sounds good. Thanks!
Added 2 new commits to this branch in order to make things easier in Svelte Kit land. If you feel like reading, you can find the reasoning and the physical changes at https://github.com/ITenthusiasm/remix-supertokens/pull/5. (The changes weren't huge.) I've discovered that with this new approach I can indeed use Svelte Kit. (With the previous implementation, I could not do so easily due to the odd way Svelte Kit is structured.) At least, I can successfully login/logout/refresh without JS. The code is rough, though, of course; and the Remix app isn't fully translated over to Svelte Kit yet. But when everything is translated over, I might make the repo public. Well... I'll wait to make the repo public until we know everything is properly settled in Remix Land. Then I'll make the Svelte Kit repo public. There's fair reason to assume that if these two SSR frameworks work, then SolidStart should also be fine. Though, I'll again reiterate that this solution is a temporary workaround. πŸ˜…
r

rp

01/13/2023, 5:49 AM
Sounds good. Thanks! I'll see the repo right now πŸ™‚
I saw the code @ITEnthusiasm and mostly it's on the right track. The one issue is that calls to getSession can throw a try refresh token or unauthorised exception which need to be handled. Try refresh token exception should redirect the user to the refresh route and back. This not only applies to the sign out route, but any route that uses the getSession function. Im trying to think if the middleware can be used instead of having to recreate all the routes. And i think this may work: You want to call the middleware function on all handlers (or maybe on a global handler) something like this:
ts
export default function handleRequest(
  request: Request,
  responseStatusCode: number,
  responseHeaders: Headers,
  remixContext: EntryContext
) {
  
  requestWrapper = createSuperTokensRequestWrapper(request);
  responseWrapper = createNewSuperTokensResponse();
  callbackCalled = false;
  await middleware()(requestWrapper, responseWrapper, () => {
    // this means that the middleware did not handle the request
    callbackCalled = true;
  })
  
  if (callbackCalled) {
    // this means that the middleware didn't handle it, so we let other routes handle it
    let markup = renderToString(<RemixServer context={remixContext} url={request.url} />);

    responseHeaders.set("Content-Type", "text/html");

    return new Response("<!DOCTYPE html>" + markup, {
      status: responseStatusCode,
      headers: responseHeaders,
    });
  } else {
    // this means that the middleware did handle the request.
    // TODO: read from responseWrapper and send relevant response.
  }
}
The
createSuperTokensRequestWrapper
and
createNewSuperTokensResponse
would be similar to what you have already made, except that it would also do a mapping of input request paths with what the middleware expects. For example, for the refresh API, the middleware expects it to be a POST request to
/auth/session/refresh
. So in the
getMethod
function of the request wrapper, you could detect that if the actual request path is
/auth/session/refresh
GET, return a POST instead, so that the middleware handles it. About the
// TODO: read from responseWrapper and send relevant response.
part, you would have to create mapping from responses written by the middleware to html / text responses that you want to send to the frontend. If the response contains a 401 status code without clearing the cookies, it means you want to navigate to the refresh route, else to the login page.. So essentially, you would end up reusing all the middleware logic making the overall code easier. If this kind of makes sense, I can attempt to try this method out by forking your repo. If there is fundamental issue with this (im not too familiar with remix), lmk πŸ™‚
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/13/2023, 2:23 PM
> The one issue is that calls to getSession can throw a try refresh token or unauthorised exception which need to be handled. Yes. Currently the
server.js
file handles the error cases for
getSession
, I think. (You can look at the
deriveSession
and
setupRemixContext
functions to verify.) The
server.js
file is the entry point for the entire Remix app, so any session errors that would have required redirects would already have been caught before I attempt to call my custom logout and refresh functions. Was that the only concern in terms of functionality? Does everything else seem to be working?
--- > Im trying to think if the middleware can be used instead of having to recreate all the routes. ο»Ώ Unfortunately, I cannot use middleware. πŸ˜”ο»Ώ This goes back to https://github.com/supertokens/supertokens-node/issues/438, though some things in that issue could probably be updated. The emerging SSR frameworks are highly incompatible with the concept of middleware. And although I previously forced something to work in Remix, I couldn't use that trick anymore when I needed HTTPS. (Some comments about that are in this Discord thread.) Although I've already created an issue, I can try to more precisely list out the issues in an RFC or something. ο»Ώ This is why I made these helper functions (e.g.,
SuperTokensHelpers.signin
). And in reality, these helper functions are pretty small and simple. Oftentimes, developers will make small, simple functions in order to handle interactions with their databases; this is to be expected for SSR frameworks/apps. With something as important as authentication, it's not surprising (nor is it inconvenient) for developers to also write a small amount of code to make sure auth is working correctly. And it's more flexible for developers to do this in their framework's way than it is to try to push it into their middleware (if their framework even allows that).
--- Although this code was intended to make sure that people (including myself) could reliably use Remix + HTTPS, it was also intended to be a POC to give ideas on how
supertokens-node
could be refactored such that the
request
and the
response
are not interacted with (nor required) directly. Instead of interacting with `req`/`res`, the functions/methods would take in cookie data and return response headers + response cookies. If that happened, then in my codebase, the
SuperTokensData.Input
and
SuperTokensData.Output
classes would go away. And I (as well as all other developers) would only need to work with
SuperTokensHelpers
in a single file. (In fact, the helpers could be inlined directly in the server `action`s if desired.) This seems to provide a simple-but-flexible approach for developers -- whether they use an SSR framework or
Express
. And from the looks of what I have, the refactors would really only be needed for `Session`'s methods (
getSession
,
createSession
, etc.).
--- > So essentially, you would end up reusing all the middleware logic making the overall code easier. Easier in one sense, but also more difficult in another. πŸ˜… Although I (and other developers) would get to write less code, the code would be much more confusing to read or reason about, and a developer would have much less insight into what's actually going on. An ideal codebase keeps the code as small and simple as possible while also communicating what's happening as extensively as possible. (This is a hard but necessary balance to strike.) Rich Harris (creator of Svelte + Svelte Kit) has commented on the significance of this before: https://github.com/sveltejs/kit/issues/334#issuecomment-806217369. But beyond this, I sadly cannot use middleware, as previously mentioned πŸ˜”
--- Ah. I misread! My apologies! For some reason I thought you were saying a
handleRequest
function would get passed to an Express Middleware. This is
entry.server.tsx
, which is different. **Edit**: The snippet doesn't work. 😬 I suppose that could potentially work, but that still risks the code requiring a bit of hoop jumping for things to work as expected. And this would result in cognitive overhead for developers. (An implementation would also be necessary for Remix's data requests.) It also means that developers would rely on the internal logic of SuperTokens, which is never a good thing. And I think a better experience can be served to developers than giving them wrappers that still express reliance on internals. To me, it's still better to express functionality explicitly in simple functions, as I mentioned in the comment chain earlier. And as far as
supertokens-node
goes, one of the best solutions I think is an update to
Session
. Otherwise, the code would still be a bit confusing, and
supertokens-node
would have to create custom wrappers for every single SSR framework -- which is impractical.
Update: I actually think the code snippet you shared wouldn't work, sadly. πŸ˜”
handleRequest
in
Remix
is only for server rendering; it doesn't interact at all with the `loader`s, `action`s, etc. And it's the `action`s and `loader`s that specifically need to be called during login, logout, refresh, etc. Moreover,
handleDataRequest
(separate from
handleRequest
) only allows us to interact with the result of a
loader
or `action`; it won't override any logic for us. (This, of course, makes sense because if there's any action-related logic, it should simply be placed directly in the action.) So we cannot reuse
middleware()
anyway. The other SSR frameworks (Svelte Kit, SolidStart, etc.) will run into a similar issue. I really don't think there's a way around updating `Session`'s methods if there's a desire to support all popular frameworks in a flexible, reliable way.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:36 AM
> Currently the server.js file handles the error cases for getSession, I think. Ah i see. Makes sense. But I also see getSession being used in
SuperTokensHelpers.logout
function - how will errors from getSession be caught from this function? Also, if you are already doing session verification in server.js, why also do it in SuperTokensHelpers.logout? The getSession in server.js in
deriveSession
should probably pass in the sessionRequired option as
false
. This will prevent it from throwing an unauthorised error and return
undefined
instead of the session object. If it returns
undefined
, the value of
res.locals
would be
res.locals = { user: { id: undefined } };
. Why are we doing
getLoadContext: () => ({ ...res.locals }),
in the
createRequestHandler
function call if we are not consuming it anywhere? Maybe I just can't find where it is being consumed? ----------------- About not using the middleware, Im really not sure if thats the best approach from SuperTokens point of view cause whilst for simple use cases, expecting devs to write the API logic themselves using the helper functions works. But when we add multi tenancy, account linking etc to the mix, it suddenly get's really complex. Let me ask you this - If the APIs exposed via the supertokens middleware were exposed via the supertokens core itself (similar to other auth services), how would those APIs be called from the remix frontend? Cause technically, you could use the supertokens middleware in server.js (as a regular express middleware), and then from remix's point of view, it would just be APIs exposed by some auth service (that happens to have the same domain) which it needs to call.
--------------------------- I am unable to start the remix app. I did:
npm i -d
npm run dev
Got the following error: https://gist.github.com/rishabhpoddar/bfce3750a10fd373562d5e137c861d24
I made a small demo app showing how we can use the middleware provided by supertokens + do session verification and refreshing without manually hacking the req / res object: https://github.com/rishabhpoddar/remix-supertokens This demo app also uses express to serve the remix app.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 3:23 PM
> How will errors from getSession be caught from this function? That's where I was asking if there were any special error cases that I should handle. Since the
server.js
file handles the authentication piece, I was hoping that any errors would be caught? But I figured you guys would know for sure. > Also, if you are already doing session verification in server.js, why also do it in SuperTokensHelpers.logout? I need something that will allow me to revoke the current session and get response cookies to send back to the browser. That was the only approach I was aware of. Same for the token refresh. > The getSession in server.js in deriveSession should probably pass in the sessionRequired option as false For some reason, I still seemed to be getting errors even when I made
sessionRequired
false, so I didn't bother. Maybe I can try again? > Why are we doing getLoadContext: () => ({ ...res.locals }), in the createRequestHandler function call if we are not consuming it anywhere?
getLoadContext
is what sets the
context
object that's passed to all of Remix's server functions (i.e.,
loaders
,
actions
, etc.). The
server.js
file doesn't do anything with `res.locals`; Remix does.
--- Yes, I believe this happened before when you tested the older version of the Remix-SuperTokens repo. The
README.md
file includes information about how to get the application started, as well as other potentially useful details. In order for the app to work, you first have to compile the SCSS files to CSS using
npm run sass
. (You don't have to keep the sass compiler running if you don't want to.) After that, the configuration variables need to be set properly through the
.env
file. (The variable names can also be found in the
README.md
file.)
--- > Let me ask you this - If the APIs exposed via the supertokens middleware were exposed via the supertokens core itself (similar to other auth services), how would those APIs be called from the remix frontend? As we discussed earlier (https://discord.com/channels/603466164219281420/1049748644837990451/1049748718838108210), using a middleware-based approach is unfortunately not a viable solution for Remix if the server requires HTTPS. The repo that you shared is more or less what I already have at https://github.com/ITenthusiasm/remix-supertokens (the
main
branch). But that implementation breaks when using HTTPS, so it is no longer valid. Even if middleware worked here, it would not be guaranteed to work for
Svelte Kit
or
SolidStart
. I suppose that theoretically, the Remix application would be able to work if it called SuperTokens core directly. We can't call
http://localhost:3000
when the server is HTTPS-only (this is a completely valid use case). And we can't call
https://localhost:3000
because it's impossible to make secure, valid certificates for localhost. (Using something like
mkcert
in prod would be an unnecessary, dangerous, and hacky solution.) We shouldn't (and sometimes can't) call
https://MYDOMAIN.com
because it creates an unnecessary round trip that hurts user experience (waiting time). For highly active applications, this is impractical. (It's also just hacky.) We can call
http://localhost:3567
because it is not an HTTPS-only server and does not require round trips. So that's good. However, taking this approach would require developers to learn the core API. And that seems a lot more complicated than just using an updating version of
Session
.
> About not using the middleware, Im really not sure if thats the best approach from SuperTokens point of view cause whilst for simple use cases, expecting devs to write the API logic themselves using the helper functions works. But when we add multi tenancy, account linking etc to the mix, it suddenly get's really complex. I obviously don't know all the ins and outs of
supertokens-node
. But to me, the solution to this problem is pretty simple: Improve the APIs to simplify the developer experience. Just like I'm doing the on the experimental branch of my Remix app,
supertokens-node
could expose helper functions for the more complex use cases. And these helper functions can still accept the input headers/cookies as a
Map
and return the response headers and cookies as separate `Map`s (as shown on the branch). And as long as the documentation was kept crystal clear, and the
supertokens-node
helper functions simplified and accomplished as much as they could without abstracting too much away (e.g., without requiring
req
,
res
objects), the developer experience would still be good.
--- From how `Remix`'s approach to session management looks (https://remix.run/docs/en/v1/utils/sessions#using-sessions), and from how `SolidStart`'s approach to session management looks (https://start.solidjs.com/advanced/session), and from Rich Harris's (creator of Svelte + Svelte Kit) expressed concerns about middleware and his thoughts/expectations regarding the future (https://github.com/sveltejs/kit/issues/334#issuecomment-804987028), I really think these SSR frameworks are moving away from middleware and towards a clearer, more functional, more explicit approach. I want
supertokens-node
to be able to push into these frameworks with the advantage of flexibility. But it's going to be harder to do this if
supertokens-node
goes against the flow of what these SSR frameworks are trying to do (and what they require, allow, and ban). Long term, I'm not saying that
supertokens-node
needs to throw away middleware. But I am saying that the core pieces of SuperTokens (e.g., the
Session
class) shouldn't assume that they're in a middleware-like context. If they do, the userbase will be limited, and SuperTokens will run into these incompatibility issues. And if for any reason another competitor arises that is more compatible (or an existing competitor catches on and changes their approach), then SuperTokens will be at a disadvantage.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:34 PM
Think of the middleware as just a way to expose auth APIs that would have otherwise been exposed via the supertokens core
The stuff that β€œdeeply” ties with your application framework is the session management piece.
For that, we are planning on adding functions which just take in tokens and return tokens. This will work without request / response objects (thanks to our conversations)
But the middleware would stay, cause really, some of the api logic will get quite complex with new features. But we would also expose all the raw functions that you can use in your own APIs without the middleware.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 4:43 PM
Yes. πŸ™πŸΏ I wasn't saying that the middleware needs to be deleted -- though perhaps they could be more easily re-used across frameworks (express, koa, etc. not Remix, SolidStart) if they were updated to use the new token-based functions. (Less need for things like
BaseResponse
). That's just a random separate comment though. I'm not saying that's a crazy priority or anything. But as long as there's a way to push forward without requiring middleware, I think that would be huge so thanks. πŸ™πŸΏ
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:44 PM
Yea. There would be. Just that it would sometimes be a pain for you to correctly replicate some of the api logic (that the middleware provides) But definitely possible.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 4:47 PM
> Think of the middleware as just a way to expose auth APIs that would have otherwise been exposed via the supertokens core Yes. The middleware concept itself makes sense. From what I can tell, the middleware simplifies interaction with the core noticeably. It's just that for the special cases like HTTPS-only, middleware gets difficult. I guess for Remix, I could spin up a separate http server on a different port.
ts
const remixApp = express();
const superTokens = express();

remixApp.listen(443);
superTokens.listen(3458);
But that still doesn't guarantee anything for Svelte Kit or SolidStart -- or other future frameworks.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:48 PM
Could you explain the issue with β€œhttps-only”?
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 4:49 PM
Yeah. I'm hoping that at least things will be straightforward for more common use cases -- especially with help from the docs. But I guess we'll see as that plays out.
If a server requires HTTPS, then all requests to the server must be HTTPS. This includes instances when the server calls itself. However, valid certificates can't be created for
localhost
. So when someone attempts
fetch(https://localhost:443)
(etc.), the request fails because Node.js doesn't trust the server (even though it's calling itself).
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:51 PM
Ah right I see. But http://localhost would work just fine as well.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 4:51 PM
Exactly. But
http
is banned on https-only servers.
The code snippet I gave earlier would technically circumvent the problem. The separate server would just be http, so Node.js doesn't have to verify any certificates. But again, that's only in Remix -- and only in the use case where the developer is using the node-adapter.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:52 PM
Right. What server is https-only though?
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 4:54 PM
In my example app? Nothing. My example app just uses http. However, the separate project that I'm working on with SuperTokens only allows https. It only listens on
443
and has some higher security configurations through its integration with Cloudflare.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:54 PM
Hmmm. Forcing https for localhost is a little odd. But I see.
I’m not sure how common of a setup is that. I totally get that https would be forced for non localhost urls, even for staging env, but for localhost, forcing https may be uncommon?
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 4:57 PM
Well it's a full stack app on one sever. So everything goes through that remix server. And the problem is that I want to make sure all users are using HTTPS. The cascading effect of that is that calls to my own server are also forced to be HTTPS. But that isn't an intentional design decision. It just "comes with the territory".
Again, if I spun up a separate express server in the same
server.js
file and attached SuperTokens middleware to that, then I could make that an http server. Then the problem goes away -- as far as my own project is concerned. But that won't be a valid solution for people who aren't using the Node Adapter for Remix. And it's not reliable for other SSR frameworks.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 4:59 PM
Right yea. That’s true. Agreed
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 5:00 PM
Yeah. Coding is hard. lol
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:00 PM
Haha. Lots of possibilities
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 5:01 PM
I just want to express again that I really appreciate you engaging all of these extended conversations and design thoughts. I'm sure it takes an extended period of time to read and respond to all these things -- and I know I write a lot. I am genuinely interested in the well-being of ST, though. I hope these things aren't a bother. πŸ˜… (Though if they ever are, you and the team are free to say so.)
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:02 PM
I appreciate these conversations too! It helps us a lot. Thank you, and would love to keep exploring ideas.
Based on these conversations, we decided to add versions for getSession and refreshSession that do not rely on req / response objects. Just tokens in and out. It’s up to the dev on how to add the tokens to the actual response cookies
I believe that this would make at least β€œsome” part of your approach easier.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 5:06 PM
I believe so as well. πŸ˜„ Looking forward to the updates! If I ever get any other ideas I guess I'll spin those off separately. But I probably won't run into them until I start trying to expand the capabilities of the existing
remix-supertokens
repo. (I'd like to add other kinds of examples to it but I just haven't had the time.)
I guess if that's the path forward, I may just merge this new code into
main
after tagging what I currently have on there. Then I'll update and push
svelte-kit-supertokens
and
solid-start-supertokens
(as I have time πŸ˜… ... hopefully not long lol)
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:08 PM
Sounds good. You may also want to take a look at the demo app I made and see the parts specific to server.js where I call getSession, revokeSession and refreshSession. That makes it so that your remix code (loaders, actions etc) don’t actually need to call these functions in them ever.
Which actually might make the whole getSession without req / res not required. Lol.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 5:10 PM
Well just for Remix. πŸ˜… Not for the other guys. But yes.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:10 PM
Yup.
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 5:12 PM
Though I will say, I think that it gives an easier time to the readers when they can just stay within the
app
directory. When someone sees a
/login
route and a
/reset-password
route, they're probably going to be thinking, "Where are
/logout.tsx
and
/refresh.tsx
?" And there will be cognitive overhead with that. So I was trying to circumvent that as far as the
remix-supertokens
example is concerned. People in these SSR frameworks are trained to put as much into the "app" (main project) directory as possible for ease of use.
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:14 PM
I see. Well, this is a personal choice. Anyway, we will add those functions which don’t depend on the req / res objects πŸ™‚
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/14/2023, 5:34 PM
Oh! Can you ping me whenever the update happens so I can update my repos?
r

rp

01/14/2023, 5:46 PM
Sure. We will probably also announce it in the new-release channel anyway
i

ITEnthusiasm

01/18/2023, 8:58 PM
Finally have Svelte Kit going with SuperTokens using the same approach as in the Remix repo. Hopefully it should be as simple as
npm install > npm run dev
. Simpler startup than the Remix app. Still needs a custom
.env
file though. https://github.com/ITenthusiasm/svelte-kit-supertokens
It's come full circle ... from me coming here and asking if there was a Svelte Kit integration, to me leaving Svelte Kit for Remix, to Remix + SuperTokens, to Remix + SuperTokens + HTTPS, to Svelte Kit with SuperTokens. Unfortunately, I'm not going to refactor my project from Remix back to Svelte Kit though. πŸ˜… In any case, other people should be able to reference that repo in the meantime if they're die-hard Svelte fans.
--- It seems like
SolidStart
still has some server bugs to iron out. So I haven't been able to make any additional progress there. πŸ˜” I really wanna use
SolidStart
, though. I would translate my other project from Remix to SolidStart if it was an option.
There are technically a couple things that could be "made cleaner" with this repo. But overall it's sufficiently functional, I think. I guess you can verify if it actually functions correctly when you get the opportunity (if you want).
r

rp

01/19/2023, 5:11 AM
sounds good! thanks @ITEnthusiasm ! i'll check it out sometime next week
i

ITEnthusiasm

02/08/2023, 4:54 PM
No rush by any means. Did you get to check out the Svelte repo?
r

rp

02/08/2023, 7:58 PM
not yet @ITEnthusiasm ! will do it very soon though. I have it in my todos
i

ITEnthusiasm

02/08/2023, 9:55 PM
Sounds good!
@rp It seems
createNewSession
now requires a request object in order to function correctly. (This seems to be old news now. πŸ˜…) - https://github.com/supertokens/supertokens-node/blob/master/CHANGELOG.md#1300---2023-02-01 - https://github.com/ITenthusiasm/svelte-kit-supertokens/issues/1 This adds slightly extra effort for SvelteKit, Remix, etc., as now I need to update the example repos. πŸ˜… Does anything in particular need to be tacked onto this request object for the session creation to work correctly? Or would a random request object without any meaningful information be sufficient? I was hoping things would move more towards data-in/data-out than req-res-in/req-res-out. Was there a motivation for this change?
r

rp

04/13/2023, 12:38 PM
We are working on a version of createNewSession, getSession and refreshSession that don't depend on the req / res object at all. This should be out fairly soon.
you should wait. We will be releasing an update fairly soon
i

ITEnthusiasm

04/13/2023, 12:42 PM
Okay, will do. Thanks again! I feel like it's been a while since we've had any back-and-forth. πŸ˜… Been busy. Hope things are well for you guys.
r

rp

04/13/2023, 12:42 PM
Yea! Thanks :)) Hope things are well for you too